Annual Report 2016
Country Reports


Maria Olsson Swedish Energy Agency


The Swedish energy policy is based on the same foundations as energy cooperation in the European Union (EU) and seeks to reconcile environmental sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. In 2016, the Government, together with several other political parties, agreed on a long-term energy policy for Sweden. The agreement includes a goal that by 2040 Sweden will have 100 percent renewable electricity production. Further on, by 2045, there will be no net emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

In 2015, the Ministry of Enterprises, Energy and Communications finished their work on a national maritime strategy which has identified areas where actions are needed in order to promote a sustainable development in the Swedish maritime sector. Ocean energy is one of many areas which are included.

Fundamental to the long-term Swedish energy policy are general economic policy instruments such as carbon tax, international emissions trading and tradable certificates for renewable electricity. From the perspective of ocean energy technology development, the renewable electricity certificate system (a tradable green certificate system) is the most relevant policy instrument.

The electricity certificate system is a market-based support system for cost-effective expansion of electricity production from renewable sources. By design, the system does not specifically target a particular renewable electricity conversion technology, i.e. is technology neutral. Electricity certificates are issued to those who produce electricity from one or more renewable energy sources, or from peat, and who have had their production plants approved by the Swedish Energy Agency. To date, certificates have been issued to producers of electricity from biofuels and peat, wind power, hydro power and solar electricity.

In 2011, Sweden and Norway entered into an agreement to form a joint electricity certificate market, which has been in operation since the beginning of 2012. Together with Norway, annual production from renewable sources in 2020 shall have increased by 28,4 TWh relative to production in 2012. In the agreement made in 2016 of the long-term energy policy for Sweden it was decided that the electricity certificate system will be prolonged to 2030 and with additional 18 TWh of renewable electricity.

The main public funding mechanism for research, business and technology development and technology demonstration are Swedish governmental agencies tasked to support academic and private sector R&D in the various stages of innovation  There are a number of governmental agencies from which researchers and developers can apply for funding.

  • The Swedish Energy Agency,, is the Swedish agency responsible for facilitating a sustainable energy system in Sweden. As such, the agency funds research, business and technology development and technology demonstration which is relevant for the sustainability of the energy system and the sustainability of the energy industry sectors.
  • The Swedish Research Council,, which, among other things, is tasked to fund fundamental research and expensive equipment for research purposes within a large number of topic areas.
  • The Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA),, supports business and technology development In addition, regional authorities are able to grant funding to varying extents.

In the beginning of 2015, the Swedish Energy Agency started a national ocean energy programme that will run for four years with a total budget of around €5,7 million (53 MSEK). The aim is to strengthen the research and development being done in the area and increase the cooperation between and within academia and industry. A total of 16 projects have been approved for funding within the programme. The programme will now be evaluated before any new calls. In parallel, there is ongoing work with a strategy for research and support to marine energy that will be used by the Swedish Energy Agency.

The Swedish Energy Agency is also involved in OCEANERA-Net, which is a collaboration between national/regional funding organisations and EU to support the ocean energy sector and fund transnational projects.